Category: Health Description: ECG Basics for Nurses app was created using Appy Pie, World's #1 App Builder for creating Android & iPhone Apps. It is a Health category app. Click below to download the ECG Basics for Nurses app.
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A heart-healthy lifestyle can help reduce your likelihood of both AFib and VFib. Regular physical activity and a diet rich in heart-healthy fats and limited in saturated and trans fats is key to keeping your heart strong for a lifetime.
How does VFib affect the body?Ventricular fibrillation is disorderly and irregular electrical activity in the heart’s ventricles. The ventricles, in turn, do not contract and pump blood out of the heart into the body. Instead they "quiver" and contract abnormally and out of rhythm with each other. VF is an emergency situation. If you develop VF, your body will not receive the blood it needs because your heart is no longer pumping properly. Untreated VF results in sudden death.The only way to correct a heart that is experiencing VF is to give it an electrical shock with a defibrillator. If the shock is administered quickly, a defibrillator can revert the heart back to a normal, healthy rhythm.If you have had VF more than once or if you have a heart condition that puts you at high risk for developing VF, your doctor may suggest you get an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). An ICD is implanted in your chest wall and has electrical leads that connected to your heart. From there, it constantly monitors your heart’s electrical activities. If it detects an irregular heart rate or rhythm, it sends out a quick shock in order to return the heart to a normal pattern.Not treating VF is not an option. A Swedish study from 2000 reported the overall one month survival rate for patients with VF that occurred outside of a hospital to be 9.5 percent. The survival range was between 50 percent with immediate treatment to 5 percent with a delay of 15 minutes. If not treated properly and immediately, people who survive VF may suffer long-term damage or even enter a coma.
RVH vs LVH
What's the difference?
Right ventricular hypertrophy:Blood travels through the right ventricle to the lungs via the pulmonary circulation. If conditions occur which decrease pulmonary circulation, meaning blood does not flow well from the heart to the lungs, extra stress can be placed on the right ventricle. This can lead to right ventricular hypertrophy. This will present as right axis deviation on the patient's ECG. Other causes of right ventricular hypertrophy include:> Pulmonary hypertension (most common cause)> Mitral stenosis> Pulmonary embolism> Chronic lung disease (cor pulmonale)> Congenital heart disease (e.g. Tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary stenosis)> Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathyThus, it is important to be able to understand the difference between left and right forms of ventricular hypertrophy as each type will require a different treatment approach.
Ventricular hypertrophy occurs when the heart is placed under prolonged strain, usually from excessive pressure or volume in the circulatory system e.g. prolonged hypertension. Other causes include athletic hypertrophy (strenuous physical exercise), valve disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and congenital heart disease.The side of the heart that hypertrophies is directly related to the type of condition that caused the hypertrophy in the first place.Left ventricular hypertrophy:The left ventricle hypertrophies in response to pressure overload (in the systemic circulation) secondary to conditions such as aortic stenosis and hypertension. The thickened left ventricular wall leads to prolonged depolarisation and delayed repolarisation in that area. This presents itself as a cardiac axis that has been shifted to the left (left axis deviation). Other causes of left ventricular hypertrophy include:> Aortic regurgitation> Mitral regurgitation> Coarctation of the aorta> Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
It is important to understand that not all rhythms are shockable. Shocking someone who is in a non-shockable rhythm won't hurt them directly, however, it will reduce the amount of time spent performing high-quality chest compressions, which will increase their likelihood of mortality. When using an AED (Automated External Defibrillators) the machine will determine what rhythm the patient is in and advise whether or not an electrical shock is required. However, when using a manual defibrillator, the operator can choose when and how they shock the patient. Thus, it is crucial to know which rhythms should be shocked and which rhythms should have CPR continued without interruption.
Cardiac arrest is most commonly caused by these 4 rhythms:
The 3 websites that were used most to create this app include:- Life in the Fast Lane(https://lifeinthefastlane.com/ecg-library/)- SkillStat ECG animator (https://www.skillstat.com/tools/ecg-simulator)- Practical Clinical Skills (for ECG images)(https://www.practicalclinicalskills.com/ekg-reference-guide)Several textbooks were also used to obtain clinical information about ECG interpretation:> Bennet, D. S. (2013). Bennett's cardiac arrhythmias: Practical notes on interpretation and treatment (8th ed.). Manchester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.> Brady, W. J., & Truwit, J. D. (2009). Critical decisions in emergency and acute care electrocardiography. Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell Publishing.> Chan, T. C., Brady, W., Harrigan, R., Ornato, J., & Rosen, P. (2005). ECG in emergency medicine and acute care (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby.> Day, K., Oliva, I., Krupinski, E., & Marcus, F. (2015). Identification of 4th intercostal space using sternal notch to xiphoid length for accurate electrocardiogram lead placement. Journal of electrocardiology, 48(6), 1058-1061. doi:10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2015.08.019> Garcia, T. B. (2015). Introduction to 12-lead ECG: The art of interpretation (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.> Garcia, T. B., & Miller, G. T. (2004). Arrhythmia recognition: The art of interpretation. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.> Goldberger, A. L., Goldberger, Z. D., & Shvilkin, A. (2017). Goldberger's clinical electrocardiography: A simplified approach (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders.> Hampton, J. R. (2013). The ECG made easy (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders.> Huszar, R. J. (2006). Basic dysrhythmias: Interpretation and management (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Elsevier Health Sciences.> Joanna Briggs Institute. (2016). Electrocardiograph (12 lead ECG) [Recommended Practice]. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com> Karran, T. (2012). Online assessment for eLearning: Options and opportunities Educational Research and Development, 22(13), 14-25. Retrieved from http://eprints.lincoln.ac.uk/1610/1/OuluAssessmentChapterforRepository.pdf> Khan, G. M. (2015). A new electrode placement method for obtaining 12-lead ECGs. Open Heart BMJ, 2(1). doi:10.1136/openhrt-2014-000226 > Klein, G. J. (2016). Strategies for ECG arrhythmia diagnosis: Breaking down complexity (2nd ed.). London, UK: Cardiotext Publishing.> Macfarlane, P. W., Oosterom, A. v., Pahlm, O., Kligfield, P., Janse, M., & Camm, J. (2010). Comprehensive electrocardiology (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.> Mann, D., Zipes, D., Libby, P., & Bonow, R. (2015). Braunwald’s heart disease: A textbook of cardiovascular medicine (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders.> Mattu, A., & Brady, W. J. (2013). ECGs for the emergency physician (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing.> Miller, J. M., Das, M. K., & Zipes, D. P. (2017). Case studies in clinical cardiac electrophysiology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. > Morrow, D. A. (2016). Myocardinal infarction: A companion to Braunwald’s heart disease. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. > Phibbs, B. (2006). Advanced ECG: Boards and beyond (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders.> Scheinman, M. (2016). Interpretation of complex arrhythmias: A case-based approach. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. > Sheppard, J. P., Barker, T. A., Ranasinghe, A. M., Clutton-Brock, T. H., Frenneaux, M. P., & Parkes, M. J. (2011). Does modifying electrode placement of the 12 lead ECG matter in healthy subjects? International Journal of Cardiology, 152(2), 184-191. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2010.07.013> Surawicz, B., & Knilans, T. K. (2008). Chou’s electrocardiography in clinical practice: Adult and pediatric (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders.> Thaler, M. S. (2014). The only EKG book you’ll ever need (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health.> Wagner, G. S. (2008). Marriott’s practical electrocardiography (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.> Wesley, K. (2011). Huszar’s basic dysrhythmias and acute coronary syndrome: Interpretation and management (4th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Mosby.
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