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English and ICT teacher at Marcial B. Villanueva National High School.
Founded : 2015
Teacher : Josh Feliciano
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Pronouns Part 2
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement Rules
General Rule: A singular pronoun must replace a singular noun and plural pronoun must replace a plural noun.Ex. Mother Nature (singular) provides the basic needs of her (singular) children. The Nine P-A Agreement Rules:1.
A phrase or clause between the subject and verb does not change the number of the antecedent. Ex. An array (singular) of trees (prepositional phrase) stands on its (singular) ground.2.
Indefinite pronouns as antecedents *Singular indefinite pronoun antecedents take singular pronoun referents. each, either, neither, one, no one, nobody, nothing, anyone,
anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody, everythingEx. Each of the birds flies towards its nest. *Plural indefinite pronoun antecedents require plural referents.
several, few, both, many
Ex. Both flowers bend their stems towards the sun. *Some indefinite pronouns that are modified by a prepositional phrase may be either singular or plural.
some, any, none, all, most
Remember: When the object of the preposition is uncountable use a singular
referent pronoun.Ex. Some of the waves reached its top! (Waves is uncountable; therefore, the sentence has a singular
referent pronoun.)Ex. Some of the animals were saved by their owners. (Animals are countable; therefore the sentence has a plural
referent pronoun.)Remember: When the object of the preposition is countable use a plural
referent pronoun.3. Compound subjects joined by and always take a plural referent.
Ex. The lion and the tiger run for their lives as the hunters chase them.4. With compound subjects joined by or/nor, the referent pronoun agrees with the antecedent closer to the pronoun.
Ex. 1: (plural antecedent closer to pronoun):
Neither the dog nor the cats escaped their stalkers. 2. (singular antecedent closer to pronoun):
Neither the cats nor the dog escaped its stalkers.5. Collective Nouns (group, jury, crowd, team, etc.) may be singular or plural, depending on meaning.
Ex. 1: A flock of birds made its nest on the tallest tree. (The flock is acting as one unit; therefore, the referent pronoun is singular.)Ex. 2:
The troop members run towards their prey. (The troop members are acting as twelve individuals; therefore, the referent pronoun is plural.)6. Titles of single entities (books, organizations, countries, etc.) take a singular referent.
Ex. 1. The Gifts of Nature made its characters seem realistic. 2. The Philippines is proud of its natural resources. 7. Plural form subjects with a singular meaning take a singular
referent. (news, measles, mumps, physics, etc)
Ex. The news about the forest fires has lost its rage a few days after. 8. Every or Many a before a noun or a series of nouns requires a singular
Ex. 1. Every cow, pig, and horse has lost its life in the fire. 2. Many a fish dreams to swim its trail along clear waters. 9. The number of vs A number of before a subject:
*The number of is singular.
Ex. The number of conserved wildlife habitats increases its number each year. *A number of is plural. Ex. A number of wild animals were saved from their huntsmen. Any questions?If none, try to answer Task 9.
A Pronoun is a word which replaces or takes the place of a noun in a sentence.Ex. Mother Nature provides the basic need of her children.HER - refers back to Mother Nature and Mother Nature is the ANTECEDENT for the pronoun HER.Antecedent - From the word "ante" means "before." It is a word that comes before a pronoun which the pronoun refers
to.Question:How to use pronouns effectively?
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